Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action "The difficulty of overcoming the effects of past discrimination is as nothing compared with the difficulty of eradicating from our society the source of those effects, which is the tendency -- fatal to a Nation such as ours -- to classify and judge men and women on the basis of their country of origin or the color of their skin. A solution to the first problem that aggravates the second is no solution at all. Affirmative action is a way to ensure that diversity is obtained and maintained in schools and in the workplace. In so doing it also helps create tolerant communities because it exposes people to a variety of cultures and ideas that are different from their own.
Affirmative action in China There is affirmative action in education for minority nationalities. This may equate to lowering minimum requirements for the National University Entrance Examination, which is a mandatory exam for all students to enter university.
Israel[ edit ] A class-based affirmative action policy was incorporated into the admission practices of the four most selective universities in Israel during the early to mids.
In evaluating the eligibility of applicants, neither their financial status nor their national or ethnic origins are considered. The emphasis, rather, is on structural disadvantages, especially neighborhood socioeconomic status and high school rigor, although several individual hardships are also weighed.
This policy made the four institutions, especially the echelons at the most selective departments, more diverse than they otherwise would have been. The rise in geographic, economic and demographic diversity of a student population suggests that the plan's focus on structural determinants of disadvantage yields broad diversity dividends.
In the negotiation for status as worthy peers, emphasizing gender signals that a woman is an "imposter", someone who does not rightfully belong in the position she is claiming to fill.
This suggests that affirmative action can have applications for different groups in Israel. Reservation in India Reservation in India is a form of affirmative action designed to improve the well-being of backward and under-represented communities defined primarily by their caste.
Malaysia provides affirmative action to the majority because in general, the Malays have lower incomes than the Chinese, who have traditionally been involved in businesses and industries, but who were also general migrant workers. Sri Lanka[ edit ] In the Standardization policy of Sri Lankan universities was introduced as an affirmative action program for students from areas which had lower rates of education than other areas due to missionary activity in the north and east, which essentially were the Tamil areas.
Successive governments cultivated a historical myth after the colonial powers had left that the British had practised communal favouritism towards Christians and the minority Tamil community for the entire years they had controlled Sri Lanka.
However, the Sinhalese in fact benefitted from trade and plantation cultivations over the rest of the other groups and their language and culture as well as the religion of Buddhism was fostered and made into mediums for schools over the Tamil language, which did not have the same treatment and Tamils learned English instead as there was no medium for Tamil until near independence.
Tamils' knowledge of English and education came from the very American missionary activity by overseas Christians that the British were concerned will anger the Sinhalese and destroy their trading relationships, so they sent them to the Tamil areas instead to teach, thinking it would have no consequences and due to their small numbers.
The British sending the missionaries to the north and east was for the protection of the Sinhalese and in fact showed favouritism to the majority group instead of the minorities to maintain trading relationships and benefits from them.
The Tamils, out of this random benefit from learning English and basic education excelled and flourished and were able to take many civil service jobs to the chagrin of the Sinhalese.
The myth of Divide and Rule is untrue. The 'policy of standardisation' was typical of affirmative action policies, in that it required drastically lower standards for Sinhalese students than for the more academic Tamils who had to get about ten more marks to enter into universities.
The policy, were it not implemented would have prevented the civil wars ahead as the policies had no basis and in fact is an example of discrimination against the Tamil ethnic group. In addition to these linguistic quotas, women may get preferential treatment in recruitment for certain public sector jobs if there is a gender imbalance in the field.
France[ edit ] No distinctions based on race, religion or sex are allowed under the French Constitution. Some schools, in neighborhoods labeled "Priority Education Zones", are granted more funds than the others. Students from these schools also benefit from special policies in certain institutions such as Sciences Po.
After the Sarkozy election, a new attempt in favour of Arab-French students was made, but Sarkozy did not gain enough political support to change the French constitution.In the United States, active efforts that take in account race, sex, and national origin for the purpose of remedying and preventing discrimination is affirmative action.
Under the landmark Civil Rights Act of and subsequent executive orders and judicial decisions, the federal government requires certain businesses and educational.
Jun 24, · In states that have banned affirmative action in college admissions, prominent public universities have tended to enroll fewer black and Hispanic freshmen.
Oct 10, · (CNN) - In , President John F.
Kennedy signed Executive Order , ordering that federally funded projects "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or .
Affirmative Action: Contentious Ideas and Controversial Practices John Michael Eden and John Paul Ryan.
From university admissions offices to the board rooms of corporate America, few questions are as subject to dissent and heated discussion as affirmative caninariojana.com contentious nature of the debate reflects the deep ideological and political divisions among its participants.
Jul 17, · Is affirmative action still necessary? Why does the United States need Affirmative Action because studies still show the Black people still suffer the effects and affects of slavery, Jim Crow, Willie Lynch, Segregation, economic and political disenfranchisement and Welfare programs which enabled single black family house holds.
The final outcome of this argument is: the U.S. should discontinue affirmative action; or the U.S.
should not discontinue affirmative action. I am making the ethical claim that the U.S. should discontinue affirmative action.