Background[ edit ] First developed in the s, fiber-optics have revolutionized the telecommunications industry and have played a major role in the advent of the Information Age. Because of its advantages over electrical transmissionoptical fibers have largely replaced copper wire communications in core networks in the developed world. The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the following basic steps: Due to much lower attenuation and interferenceoptical fiber has large advantages over existing copper wire in long-distance, high-demand applications.
Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber is used as a medium for telecommunication and computer networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with much lower attenuation compared to electrical cables.
This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. The net data rate data rate without overhead bytes per fiber is the per-channel data rate reduced by the FEC overhead, multiplied by the number of channels usually up to 80 in commercial dense WDM systems as of [update].
Fiber is also immune to electrical interference; there is no cross-talk between signals in different cables, and no pickup of environmental noise.
Non-armored fiber cables do not conduct electricity, which makes fiber a good solution for protecting communications equipment in high voltage environments, such as power generation facilities, or metal communication structures prone to lightning strikes.
They can also be used in environments where explosive fumes are present, without danger of ignition. Wiretapping in this case, fiber tapping is more difficult compared to electrical connections, and there are concentric dual-core fibers that are said to be tap-proof.
For example, most high-definition televisions offer a digital audio optical connection.
Advantages over copper wiring[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May The advantages of optical fiber communication with respect to copper wire systems are: A single optical fiber can carry over 3, full-duplex voice calls or 90, TV channels.
Immunity to electromagnetic interference: Light transmission through optical fibers is unaffected by other electromagnetic radiation nearby. The optical fiber is electrically non-conductive, so it does not act as an antenna to pick up electromagnetic signals.
Information traveling inside the optical fiber is immune to electromagnetic interferenceeven electromagnetic pulses generated by nuclear devices. Low attenuation loss over long distances: Attenuation loss can be as low as 0. Optical fibers do not conduct electricity, preventing problems with ground loops and conduction of lightning.
Optical fibers can be strung on poles alongside high voltage power cables. Material cost and theft prevention: Conventional cable systems use large amounts of copper. Global copper prices experienced a boom in the s, and copper has been a target of metal theft.
Security of information passed down the cable: Copper can be tapped with very little chance of detection. Fiber optic sensor Fibers have many uses in remote sensing.
In some applications, the sensor is itself an optical fiber. In other cases, fiber is used to connect a non-fiberoptic sensor to a measurement system. Depending on the application, fiber may be used because of its small size, or the fact that no electrical power is needed at the remote location, or because many sensors can be multiplexed along the length of a fiber by using different wavelengths of light for each sensor, or by sensing the time delay as light passes along the fiber through each sensor.
Time delay can be determined using a device such as an optical time-domain reflectometer. Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure straintemperaturepressureand other quantities by modifying a fiber so that the property to measure modulates the intensityphasepolarizationwavelengthor transit time of light in the fiber.
Sensors that vary the intensity of light are the simplest, since only a simple source and detector are required. A particularly useful feature of such fiber optic sensors is that they can, if required, provide distributed sensing over distances of up to one meter.
In contrast, highly localized measurements can be provided by integrating miniaturized sensing elements with the tip of the fiber. Extrinsic fiber optic sensors use an optical fiber cablenormally a multi-mode one, to transmit modulated light from either a non-fiber optical sensor—or an electronic sensor connected to an optical transmitter.
A major benefit of extrinsic sensors is their ability to reach otherwise inaccessible places. An example is the measurement of temperature inside aircraft jet engines by using a fiber to transmit radiation into a radiation pyrometer outside the engine.
Extrinsic sensors can be used in the same way to measure the internal temperature of electrical transformerswhere the extreme electromagnetic fields present make other measurement techniques impossible.
Extrinsic sensors measure vibration, rotation, displacement, velocity, acceleration, torque, and torsion. A solid state version of the gyroscope, using the interference of light, has been developed. The fiber optic gyroscope FOG has no moving parts, and exploits the Sagnac effect to detect mechanical rotation.The Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), held March at the Anaheim Convention Center, showcased the changing shape of the global fiber-optic industry.
Fiber to the home took the spotlight, with talks on the experience of Japanese companies in deploying systems and new technology for cutting costs and improving . Fiber optics is a medium for carrying information from one point to another in the form of light. Unlike the copper form of transmission, fiber optics is not electrical in nature.
A basic fiber. Based on optical fiber type, the fiber optic market is segmented into single mode, multiple mode and plastic mode. Based on application, the fiber optic market is segmented into fiber optic lighting, CATV, security, sensors, and others.
This research paper will cover the basis of fiber optics in terms of its transmission, communication, origin, uses and applications. Fiber optics transports light in a very directional way.
Light is focused into and guided through a cylindrical glass fiber. Optical Sources, Detectors, and Systems presents a unified approach, from the applied engineering point of view, to radiometry, optical devices, sources, and receivers.
One of the most important and unique features of the book is that it combines modern optics, electric circuits, and system analysis into a unified, comprehensive treatment.
SMA — due to its stainless steel structure and low-precision threaded fiber locking mechanism, this connector is used mainly in applications requiring the coupling of high-power laser beams into large-core multimode fibers.
Typical applications include laser beam delivery systems in medical, bio-medical, and industrial applications.