Early life and political career — [ edit ] Childhood and businessman[ edit ] Joseph Chamberlain seated and Austen ChamberlainChamberlain was born on 18 March in a house called Southbourne in the Edgbaston district of Birmingham.
The Treaty of Versailles recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia with a population that included three million German-speaking people, 24 percent of the total population of the country. The Germans lived mostly in border regions of the historical lands of Bohemia and Moravia for which they coined the new name Sudetenlandbordering on Germany and the newly created country of Austria.
The Sudeten Germans were not consulted about whether they wished to be citizens of Czechoslovakia. Although the constitution guaranteed equality for all citizens, there was a tendency among political leaders to transform the country "into an instrument of Czech and Slovak nationalism".
Moreover, the Great Depression beginning in impacted the highly industrialized and export-oriented Sudeten Germans more than it did the Czech and Slovak populations.
By60 percent of the unemployed people in Czechoslovakia were Germans.
Historians differ as to whether the SdP was from its beginning a Nazi front organizationor evolved into one. On 24 April, the SdP issued a series of demands upon the government of Czechoslovakia, that were known as the Carlsbad Program. Hitler did not reply.
Sudetendeutsches Freikorps As the previous appeasement of Hitler had shown, the governments of both France and Britain were intent on avoiding war.
Daladier told Jakob Suritsthe Soviet ambassador to France: The Sudeten Germans were under instruction from Hitler to avoid a compromise,  and after the SdP held demonstrations that provoked police action in Ostrava on 7 September in which two of their parliamentary deputies were arrested,  the Sudeten Germans used this incident and false allegations of other atrocities as an excuse to break off further negotiations.
The organization was sheltered, trained and equipped by German authorities and conducted cross border terrorist operations into Czechoslovak territory.
This understanding has been assumed also by the contemporary Czech Constitutional court. On 20 September, German opponents to the Nazi regime within the military met to discuss the final plans of a plot they had developed to overthrow the Nazi regime.
He told Chamberlain that he wanted Czechoslovakia to be completely dissolved and its territories redistributed to Germany, Poland, and Hungary, and told Chamberlain to take it or leave it.
The Czechs must be destroyed. After being pressed by Chamberlain, Hitler agreed to have the ultimatum set for 1 October the same date that Operation Green was set to begin. The Czechoslovak army, modern, experienced and possessing an excellent system of frontier fortificationswas prepared to fight.
Both countries refused to allow the Soviet army to use their territories. The memorandum also stated that if Czechoslovakia did not agree to the German demands by 2 pm on 28 September, Germany would take the Sudetenland by force.
On the same day, Chamberlain returned to Britain and announced that Hitler demanded the annexation of the Sudetenland without delay. The next day, however, Hitler added new demands, insisting that the claims of ethnic Germans in Poland and Hungary also be satisfied.
On 26 September, Chamberlain sent Sir Horace Wilson to carry a personal letter to Hitler declaring that the Allies wanted a peaceful resolution to the Sudeten crisis.
In the meantime, I will study what can be done to solve the problem. Hitler told the ambassador "My good friend, Benito Mussolini, has asked me to delay for twenty-four hours the marching orders of the German army, and I agreed.
Of course, this was no concession, as the invasion date was set for 1 October Roosevelt learned the conference had been scheduled, he telegraphed Chamberlain, "Good man". Germany occupies the Sudetenland October Poland annexes Zaolziean area with a Polish plurality, over which the two countries had fought a war in October Hungary occupies border areas southern third of Slovakia and southern Carpathian Ruthenia with Hungarian minorities in accordance with the First Vienna Award November On 15 Marchduring the German invasion of the remaining Czech territories, Hungary annexes Carpathian Ruthenia which had been autonomous since October Germany establishes the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia with a puppet governmenton 16 March Meanwhile, during the German invasion of Czech territories, a pro-Hitler Catholic - fascist government splits off the remaining territories of Czechoslovakia and declares the Slovak Republican Axis client state.
From left to right: A deal was reached on 29 September, and at about 1: The agreement was officially introduced by Mussolini although in fact the Italian plan was nearly identical to the Godesberg proposal: Czechoslovakia was informed by Britain and France that it could either resist Nazi Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations.
The Czechoslovak government, realizing the hopelessness of fighting the Nazis alone, reluctantly capitulated 30 September and agreed to abide by the agreement.
The settlement gave Germany the Sudetenland starting 10 October, and de facto control over the rest of Czechoslovakia as long as Hitler promised to go no further.Arthur Neville Chamberlain FRS (/ ˈ tʃ eɪ m b ər l ɪ n /; 18 March – 9 November ) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Prime Minister: Winston Churchill.
Neville Chamberlain "Peace for Our Time," September 30, The following statement was made by British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, in front of #10 Downing Street, London, after his arrival home from the notorious Munich Conference of Arthur Neville Chamberlain FRS (/ ˈ tʃ eɪ m b ər l ɪ n /; 18 March – 9 November ) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May to May Political party: Conservative.
Neville Chamberlain: Neville Chamberlain, prime minister of the United Kingdom from May 28, , to May 10, , whose name is identified with the policy of “appeasement” toward Adolf Hitler’s Germany in the period immediately preceding World War II.
Seventy-five years ago, on Sept. 30, , British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signed the Munich Pact, handing portions of Czechoslovakia to Adolf Hitler’s Germany.
Policy best shown by Britain leading up to the war (Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was a supportor); believed that reasonable compromise between nations would achieve peace and avoid conflict.