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Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Revolution and the growth of industrial society, — Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events.
The French Revolution broke out inand its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades. World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, cultureand diplomacy during the late 19th century. In between these boundaries—the one opening a new set of trends, the other bringing long-standing tensions to a head—much of modern Europe was defined.
Europe during this year span was both united and deeply divided.
A number of basic cultural trends, including new literary styles and the spread of science, ran through the entire continent. European states were increasingly locked in diplomatic interaction, culminating in continentwide alliance systems after At the same time, this was a century of growing nationalismin which individual states jealously protected their identities and indeed established more rigorous border controls than ever before.
Finally, the European continent was to an extent divided between two zones of differential development. Changes such as the Industrial Revolution and political liberalization spread first and fastest in western Europe—Britain, France, the Low CountriesScandinavia, and, to an extent, Germany and Italy.
Eastern and southern Europe, more rural at the outset of the period, changed more slowly and in somewhat different ways. Europe witnessed important common patterns and increasing interconnections, but these developments must be assessed in terms of nation-state divisions and, even more, of larger regional differences.
Some trends, including the ongoing impact of the French Revolution, ran through virtually the entire 19th century.
Other characteristics, however, had a shorter life span. Some historians prefer to divide 19th-century history into relatively small chunks. Thus, — is defined by the French Revolution and Napoleon; —48 forms a period of reaction and adjustment; —71 is dominated by a new round of revolution and the unifications of the German and Italian nations; and —, an age of imperialism, is shaped by new kinds of political debate and the pressures that culminated in war.
Overriding these important markers, however, a simpler division can also be useful. Between and Europe dealt with the forces of political revolution and the first impact of the Industrial Revolution.
Between and a fuller industrial society emerged, including new forms of states and of diplomatic and military alignments. The midth century, in either formulation, looms as a particularly important point of transition within the extended 19th century.Events in the 20th century The world at the beginning of the century.
In Europe, the British Empire achieved the height of its power. Germany and Italy, which came into existence as unified nations in the second half of the 19th century, grew in power, challenging the traditional hegemony of Britain and France.
With nationalism in full force at this time, the European powers competed with each. Early 20th-century Europe was a chaotic conglomeration of powerful countries, countries trying to be powerful, alliances, ideals, and tensions, all of which helped pave the way to World War I.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, and ended on December 31, It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the s which began on January 1, and ended on December 31, Napoleon appoints a commission to prepare a code of civil law, which becomes known as the Code Napoléon.
workers in the 19th century, international experience became essential for their perception of society. However, backward (agricultural) labourers, not yet affected by industrial working modes, consideration, i.e., the decades around the turn of the 19th into the 20th century.
revolutions in Europe in , France alone had a foreign. The world in the century between and was largely dominated by European powers. Germany and Italy, previously made up of a number of small states or .