Additional radio communications about civilian vehicle traffic driving over the supply line.
Basins with a significant groundwater component may be less responsive to climate change than indicated here. Consequences and Likelihoods of Changes Courtesy of NOAA Reservoir systems have multiple objectives, including irrigation, municipal and industrial use, hydropower production, flood control, and preservation of habitat for aquatic species.
These reduced flows will require more tradeoffs among objectives of the whole system of reservoirs, 32 especially with the added challenges of summer increases in electric power demand for cooling 33 and additional water consumption by crops and forests.
However, over-allocation of existing water supply, conflicting objectives, limited management flexibility caused by rigid water allocation and operating rules, and other institutional barriers to changing operations continue to limit progress towards adaptation in many parts of the Columbia River basin.
In highly managed rivers, release of deeper, colder water from reservoirs could offer one of the few direct strategies to lower water temperatures downstream.
Some species may be able to change behavior or take advantage of cold-water refuges. Coastal Vulnerabilities In the coastal zone, the effects of sea level rise, erosion, inundation, threats to infrastructure and habitat, and increasing ocean acidity collectively pose a major threat to the region.
The authors and several dozen collaborators undertook a risk evaluation of the impacts of climate change in the Northwest that informed the development of the four key messages in this chapter see also Ch.
The qualitative comparative risk assessment underlying the key messages in the Northwest chapter was informed by the Northwest Regional Climate Risk Framing workshop December 2,in Portland, OR. The workshop brought together stakeholders and scientistsfrom a cross-section of sectors and jurisdictions within the region to discuss and rank the likelihood and consequences for key climate risks facing the Northwest region and previously identified in the Oregon Climate Change Adaptation Framework.
These included careful review of the foundational technical input Assessment scientific investigation and report 13 and approximately 80 additional technical inputs provided to the NCA by the public, as well additional published literature.
They also drew heavily from two state climate assessment reports. The key regionally consequential risks thus identified are those deriving from projected changes in streamflow timing in particular, warming-related impacts in watersheds where snowmelt is an important contributor to flow ; coastal consequences of the combined impact of sea level rise and other climate-related drivers; and changes in Northwest forest ecosystems.
The Northwest chapter therefore focuses on the implications of these risks for Northwest water resources, key aquatic species, coastal systems, and forest ecosystems, as well as climate impacts on the regionally important, climate-sensitive agricultural sector.
These syntheses were followed by expert deliberation of draft key messages by the authors wherein each key message was defended before the entire author team before this key message was selected for inclusion in the report. Evidence for observed global eustatic sea level rise and regional sea level change derives from satellite altimetry and coastal tide gauges.
Evidence for projected global sea level rise is described in Ch. West Coast, and Parris et al. Evidence for erosion and inundation associated with projected sea level rise is based on observations and mapping of coastal elevations and geospatial analyses of the extent and location of inundation associated with various sea level rise and storm surge scenarios.
Vulnerability of coastal transportation infrastructure to climate change has been assessed by combining geospatial risk analyses with expert judgment of asset sensitivity to climate risk and criticality to the transportation system in Washington State and by assessing transportation infrastructure exposure to climate risks associated with sea level rise and river flooding in the region as a whole.
Evidence for impacts of climate change on coastal habitat is based on: Evidence for historical increases in ocean acidification is from observations of changes in coastal ocean conditions, which also indicate high spatial and temporal variability.
Evidence for marine species responses to climate change derives from observations of shifts in marine plankton, fish, and seabird species associated with historical changes in ocean conditions, including temperature and availability of preferred foods.
Evidence for low adaptive capacity is from observations of extent of degraded or fragmented coastal habitat, existence of few options for mitigating changes in marine chemical properties, observed extent of barriers to inland habitat migration, narrow coastal transportation corridors, and limited transportation alternatives for rural coastal towns.
However, there is virtually no uncertainty in the direction sign of global sea level rise. There is also a solid understanding of the primary contributing factors and mechanisms causing sea level rise. Other details concerning uncertainty in global sea level rise are treated elsewhere for example, NRC 53 and in Ch.
Regional uncertainty in projected Northwest sea level rise results primarily from global factors such as ice sheet mass balance and local vertical land movement affecting relative sea level rise.
An accurate determination of vertical land deformation requires a sufficient density of monitoring sites for example, NOAA tide gauges and permanent GPS sites that monitor deformation to capture variations in land deformation over short spatial scales, and in many Northwest coastal locations such dense networks do not exist.
There is a general trend, however, of observed uplift along the northwestern portion of the Olympic Peninsula and of subsidence within the Puget Sound region GPS data gathered from PBO data sets -- http: There is also considerable uncertainty about potential impacts of climate change on processes that influence storminess and affect coastal erosion in the Northwest.
These uncertainties relate to system complexity and the limited number of studies and lack of consensus on future atmospheric and oceanic conditions that will drive changes in regional wind fields. Continued collection and assessment of meteorological data at ocean buoy locations and via remote sensing should improve our understanding of these processes.
Uncertainty in future patterns of sediment delivery to the coastal system limit projections of future inundation, erosion, and changes in tidal marsh. However, there are areas in the Northwest where it is clear that man-made structures have interrupted sediment supply and there is little uncertainty that shallow water habitat will be lost.
Although relatively well-bounded, uncertainty over the rate of projected relative sea level rise limits our ability to assess whether any particular coastal habitat will be able to keep pace with future changes through adaptation for example, through accretion.
The specific implications of the combined factors of sea level rise, coastal climate change, and ocean acidification for coastal ecosystems and specific individual species remain uncertain due to the complexity of ecosystem response.
However, there is general agreement throughout the peer-reviewed literature that negative impacts for a number of marine calcifying organisms are projected, particularly during juvenile life stages. Projections of future coastal ocean conditions for example, temperature, nutrients, pH, and productivity are limited, in part, by uncertainty over future changes in upwelling — climate model scenarios show inconsistent projections for likely future upwelling conditions.
Considerable uncertainty also remains in whether, and how, higher average ocean temperatures will influence geographical ranges, abundances, and diversity of marine species, although evidence of changes in pelagic fish species ranges and in production associated with Pacific Ocean temperature variability during cyclical events have been important indicators for potential species responses to climate change in the future.
Consequences from ocean acidification for commercial fisheries and marine food web dynamics are potentially very high — while the trend of increasing acidification is very likely, the rate of change and spatial variability within coastal waters are largely unknown and are the subject of ongoing and numerous nascent research efforts.
Assessment of confidence based on evidence and agreement or, if defensible, estimates of the likelihood of impact or consequence There is very high confidence in the global upward trend of sea level rise SLR and ocean acidification OA.
There is high confidence that SLR over the next century will remain under an upper bound of approximately 2 meters. Projections for SLR and OA at specific locations are much less certain medium to low because of the high spatial variability and multiple factors influencing both phenomena at regional and sub-regional scales.Particular emphasis is placed on key data required for the assessment of long-lived radionuclide and other contaminant migration and accumulation in the biosphere, and the associated radiological impact, following release to the environment from solid waste disposal facilities and legacy sites.
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INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION This document supersedes the sections outlining assessment, evaluation, and reporting policy in The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 to Program Planning and Assessment, and in curriculum policy documents for Grades 1 to 8, Grades 9 and 10, and Grades 11 and 12 published.
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Death in the Line of Duty A summary of a NIOSH fire fighter fatality investigation. F Date Released: February 11, SUMMARY. On June 18, , nine career fire fighters (all males, ages 27 56) died when they became disoriented and ran out of air in rapidly deteriorating conditions inside a burning commercial furniture .