Biology unit 5 essay plans

It can develop so rapidly that it can get past any immune defences. It is a virus that attacks the immune system, so it needs to figure out most quickly how to protect itself from the immune system and it does that by rapidly mutating. The laboratory aims to develop a vaccine that would elicit an immune response capable of neutralising a broad spectrum of HIV immunogens. Dr Jayanta Bhattacharya, Principal Investigator at the laboratory explained that there are individuals who make antibodies that can kill a wide array of viruses circulating globally.

Biology unit 5 essay plans

That is a thousand fold increase from to There are two important things to note here. The other thing is that there are only four real data points here in this graph which he published in In the number of components isi. So this is a null data point. Then he plots four actual data points, which we assume were taken from what Fairchild could produce, for,andhaving 8, 16, 32, and 64 components.

That is a doubling every year. It is an exponential increase in the true sense of exponential. What is the mechanism for this, how can this work? In the last half page of the four and a half page article Moore explains the limitations of his prediction, saying that for some things, like energy storage, we will not see his predicted trend.

Energy takes up a certain number of atoms and their electrons to store a given amount, so you can not just arbitrarily change the number of atoms and still store the same amount of energy. Likewise if you have a half gallon milk container you can not put a gallon of milk in it. A circuit element in an integrated circuit just needs to know whether a previous element said yes or no, whether there is a voltage or current there or not.

In the design phase one decides above how many volts or amps, or whatever, means yes, and below how many means no. And there needs to be a good separation between those numbers, a significant no mans land compared to the maximum and minimum possible.

But, the magnitudes do not matter. I like to think of it like piles of sand. Is there a pile of sand on the table or not?

We might have a convention about how big a typical pile of sand is. But we can make it work if we halve the normal size of a pile of sand. We can still answer whether or not there is a pile of sand there using just half as many grains of sand in a pile.

The Law of Accelerating Returns | Kurzweil

And then we can halve the number again. And the digital abstraction of yes or no still works. And we can halve it again, and it still works.

And again, and again, and again. The most popular versions were doubling of the number of transistors, doubling of the switching speed of those transistors so a computer could run twice as fastdoubling of the amount of memory on a single chip, and doubling of the secondary memory of a computer—originally on mechanically spinning disks, but for the last five years in solid state flash memory.

And there were many others. The components on an integrated circuit are laid out on a two dimensional wafer of silicon. So to double the number of components for the same amount of silicon you need to double the number of components per unit area. That means that the size of a component, in each linear dimension of the wafer needs to go down by a factor of.

In turn, that means that Moore was seeing the linear dimension of each component go down to of what it was in a year, year over year. But why was it limited to just a measly factor of two per year? Given the pile of sand analogy from above, why not just go to a quarter of the size of a pile of sand each year, or one sixteenth?

As the feature size gets smaller, the alignment of the projected patterns of light for each step of the process needs to get more accurate. Sinceapproximately, it needs to get better by as you halve the feature size. And because impurities in the materials that are printed on the circuit, the material from the gasses that are circulating and that are activated by light, the gas needs to get more pure, so that there are fewer bad atoms in each component, now half the area of before.

The equipment has to operate with things times smaller, i. But we can fit more components in a single circuit, which is 33, times more. The accuracy of our equipment has improved 5, times, but that has gotten a further acceleration of 5, on top of the original 5, times due to the linear to area impact.

In his original paper Moore only dared project out, and only implicitly, that the equipment would get better every year for ten years. In reality, with somewhat slowing time constants, that has continued to happen for 50 years.Digital Impact. Proven Experience.

Biology unit 5 essay plans

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Biology unit 5 essay plans

BIO 5 June 12 essay 10a The importance of shapes fitting together in cells and organisms Plan-• Enzymes - lock and key model, induced fit, specific complementary shapes, digestion of lactose, restriction enzyme in DNA/5(1).

The Law of Accelerating Returns | Kurzweil