Basic Concepts of Food Security: Definition, Dimensions and Integrated Phase Classification by Yadav Sharma Bajagai "Food Security" is one of major elements of development and poverty alleviation and has been the goal of many international and national public organizations. The issue is so important that according to the state of food insecurity in the world published by FAO around million people out of which million from developing countries are estimated to have been undernourished in the period
They also have to be protected against future disruptions to the access of adequate food. The subcomponents of access are affordability, allocation and preference.
The three subcomponents are nutritional value, food safety and social value.
They should not risk losing food as a consequence of sudden shocks or cyclical events. Leverages both availability and access dimensions of food security.
Three components of food security 3 The relationship between the food availability, access and utilization components is dynamic. The Food Supply Climate is a particularly important driver of food system performance at the agriculture end of the food chain. It can affect the quantities and types of food produced as well as production-related income.
In the heavily populated countries of Asia and the Pacific, this share ranges from 40 to 50 percent, and in sub-Saharan Africa, two-thirds of the working population still make their living from agriculture ILO, If agricultural production in the low-income developing countries of Asia and Africa is adversely affected by climate change, the livelihoods of large numbers of the rural poor will be put at risk and their vulnerability to food insecurity increased.
Impacts on the production of food will affect food supply at the global and local levels. Globally, higher yields in temperate regions could offset lower yields in tropical regions.
However, in many low-income countries with limited financial capacity to trade and high dependence on their own production to cover food requirements, it may not be possible to offset declines in local supply without increasing reliance on food aid.
Impacts on all forms of agricultural production will affect livelihoods and access to food. Producer groups that are less able to deal with climate change, such as the rural poor in developing countries, risk having their safety and welfare compromised.
Other food system processes, such as food processing, distribution, acquisition, preparation and consumption, are as important for food security as food and agricultural production are. Technological advances and the development of long-distance marketing chains that move produce and packaged foods throughout the world at high speed and relatively low cost have made overall food system performance far less dependent on climate than it was years ago.
However, as the frequency and intensity of severe weather increase, there is a growing risk of storm damage to transport and distribution infrastructure, with consequent disruption of food supply chains.
These factors could result in more local responsibility for food security, which needs to be considered in the formulation of adaptation strategies for people who are currently vulnerable or who could become so within the foreseeable future.
Who is most at risk of hunger? Three main groups are most at risk of hunger: Many have no electricity and no safe drinking water. Public health, education and sanitation services are often of low quality. They cultivate crops on small plots of land. They do what they can to provide food for their families or earn money at the local produce market.
Many have no land of their own and work as hired hands to earn enough money to get by. Often the work is seasonal, and the family must move or split up to earn a living. It is hard work and it is difficult to set anything aside in case of an emergency. Even when there is enough food, the threat of hunger is always present.
The urban poor The urban poor constitute another group that is at risk of hunger. They produce little or no food and frequently lack the means to buy food. Cities are expanding constantly. In the yearnearly two billion people lived in cities; bythis figure will have more than doubled.
As the cities expand, and as more people will migrate from rural to urban areas, the number of the urban poor will rise. Urban hunger and access to affordable food in cities will therefore be increasingly important issues.The three components of food security The Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA)  was a cooperative agreement between the U.S.
Agency for International Development (USAID) and FHI FANTA aimed to improve the health and well-being of vulnerable groups through technical support in the areas of maternal and. Food security relates directly to nutrition and health. Typically food security is thought of as being related to availability and access of foodstuffs.
Yet, the threat to food security also lies. Food security is the outcome of food system operating efficiently. Efficient food system contributes positively to all dimensions of food security.
Following are the dimensions of food security (figure 2): There are 4 components of the IPC: (1) Reference Table (2) Analysis Template (3) Cartographic Protocols (4) Population Table. Food security in a population means that all people, at all times, have sufficient access to food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life.
Figure 1: Three components of food security 3 The relationship between the food availability, access and utilization components is dynamic.
However “food availability is necessary but not sufficient for access, and access is necessary but not sufficient for utilization” (Webb et al., ). Food security is the outcome of food system operating efficiently.
Efficient food system contributes positively to all dimensions of food security.
Following are the dimensions of food security (figure 2): There are 4 components of the IPC: (1) Reference Table (2) Analysis Template (3) Cartographic Protocols (4) Population Table.