Saul McLeodpublishedupdated Developmental psychology is a scientific approach which aims to explain growth, change and consistency though the lifespan.
Psychosexual development Sigmund Freud believed that we all had a conscious, preconscious, and unconscious level. In the conscious, we are aware of our mental process. The preconscious involves information that, though not currently in our thoughts, can be brought into consciousness.
Lastly, the unconscious includes mental processes we are unaware of.
He believed there is tension between the conscious and unconscious because the conscious tries to hold back what the unconscious tries to express. To explain this he developed three personality structures: The id, the most primitive of the three, functions according Psychological stages of development the pleasure principle: The first is the oral stage, which occurs from birth to 12 months of age.
During the oral stage, "the libido is centered in a baby's mouth. The second is the anal stage, from one to three years of age. During the anal stage, the child defecates from the anus and is often fascinated with their defecation. The third is the phallic stagewhich occurs from three to five years of age most of a person's personality forms by this age.
During the phallic stage, the child is aware of their sexual organs. The fourth is the latency stage, which occurs from age five until puberty. During the latency stage, the child's sexual interests are repressed.
Stage five is the genital stagewhich takes place from puberty until adulthood. During the genital stage, puberty starts happening. Piaget's theory of cognitive development Jean Piageta Swiss theorist, posited that children learn by actively constructing knowledge through hands-on experience.
He used Socratic questioning to get children to reflect on what they were doing, and he tried to get them to see contradictions in their explanations. Piaget believed that intellectual development takes place through a series of stages, which he described in his theory on cognitive development.
Each stage consists of steps the child must master before moving to the next step. He believed that these stages are not separate from one another, but rather that each stage builds on the previous one in a continuous learning process. He proposed four stages: Though he did not believe these stages occurred at any given age, many studies have determined when these cognitive abilities should take place.
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development Piaget claimed that logic and morality develop through constructive stages. The pre-conventional moral reasoning is typical of children and is characterized by reasoning that is based on rewards and punishments associated with different courses of action.
Conventional moral reason occurs during late childhood and early adolescence and is characterized by reasoning based on rules and conventions of society. Lastly, post-conventional moral reasoning is a stage during which the individual sees society's rules and conventions as relative and subjective, rather than as authoritative.
The Heinz Dilemma involves Heinz's wife dying from cancer and Heinz having the dilemma to save his wife by stealing a drug. Preconventional morality, conventional morality, and post-conventional morality applies to Heinz's situation.
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development German-American psychologist Erik Erikson and his collaborator and wife, Joan Eriksonconceptualized eight stages of psychosocial development that they theorized healthy individuals pass through as they develop from infancy to adulthood.
Mistrust" takes place in infancy. The second stage is "Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt" with the best virtue being will.Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development emphasizes the sociocultural determinants of development and presents them as eight stages of psychosocial conflicts (often known as Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development) that all individuals must overcome or resolve successfully in order to adjust well to the environment.
The seven stages of psychological development and the three stages of the ego-soul evolutionary dynamic are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: The three evolutionary stages of the ego-soul dynamic. The seven stages of psychological development and the three stages of the ego-soul evolutionary dynamic are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: The three evolutionary stages of the ego-soul dynamic. Developmental psychologist Erik H. Erikson () was best known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis..
The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, as articulated in the second half of the 20th century by Erik Erikson in collaboration with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages that a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood.
All stages are present at birth, but only begin to unfold according to both a natural scheme . During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.
For Erikson (), these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual (i.e. psycho) conflicting with the needs of society (i.e. social).