In Dalton I believe that spoken language is different from written language because most written language Is Intended to be read by someone who is separated from the writer in space and time. Therefore to communicate successfully, it has to be a lot more explicit than spoken language used in a face to face conversation. Spoken language tends to be full of repetitions, incomplete sentences, corrections and interruptions, with the exception of formal speeches etc. Also, Writers receive no immediate feedback from their readers, except in computer-based communication.
The first page of the Arborean Carta de Logu Sardinian was the first Romance language of all to gain official status,  being used by the four Giudicati "Judgedoms" or "Judicatures" former quarrelling Byzantine districts that became independent political entities after the Arab expansion in the Mediterranean cut off any ties left between the island and Byzantium.
One of the oldest documents left in Sardinian the so-called Carta Volgare comes from the Judgedom of Cagliari and was issued by Torchitorio I de Lacon-Gunale in aroundemploying the Greek alphabet.
While the earlier documents show the existence of an early Sardinian Koine,  the language used by the various Judgedoms already displayed a certain range of dialectal variation. The Carta de Logu of the Kingdom of Arborea, one of the first constitutions in history drawn up in — by Marianus IV and the Queen, the "Lady Judge" judikessa in Sardinian, jutgessa in Catalan, giudicessa in Italian Eleanorwas written in this transitional variety of Sardinian, and remained in force until Ego iudice Mariano de Lacon fazo ista carta ad onore de omnes homines de Pisas pro xu toloneu ci mi pecterunt: The first document containing Sardinian elements is a donation to the abbey of Montecassino signed by Barisone I of Torres.
People from the neighbouring island of Corsica began to settle in the northern Sardinian coast, leading to the birth of the Tuscan -sounding Sassarese and Gallurese.
Habsburg period — Spanish influence[ edit ] Through the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in and, later inthe reorganization of the monarchy led by the Count-Duke of OlivaresSardinia would progressively join a broad Spanish cultural sphere and leave the exclusive Aragonese one.
Spanish was perceived as an elitist language, gaining solid ground among the ruling Sardinian class; Spanish had thus a profound influence on Sardinian, especially in those words, styles and cultural models owing to the prestigious international role of the Habsburg Monarchy as well as the Court.
A proclamation is in the Bosa archives.
|Mathematical Notation: Past and Future||A gender system that distinguishes femaleness as having a salient property, whether positive, negative, or neither, might still be regarded as a kind of sexism, whichever way the property goes; but it is a rather different matter from the usual feminist complaint about the patriarchal conception that we find all the way from Genesis to Aristotle to Freud: It looks to be essential to the feminist theory of "sexist language" that a gender system where the masculine gender doubles as the common gender causes or reinforces "phallocentrism" and a patriarchal society.|
|Definitions of language||Approaches[ edit ] One can sub-divide approaches to the origin of language according to some underlying assumptions:|
|New Journals||Characteristics of language Definitions of language Many definitions of language have been proposed. Henry Sweet, an English phonetician and language scholar, stated:|
The first gravestone has writings in Sardinian, the other two in Italian. Savoyard period and Kingdom of Italy[ edit ] See also: Piedmontese period The War of the Spanish Succession gave Sardinia to Austriawhose sovereignty was confirmed by the —14 treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt.
This transfer would not initially entail any social nor linguistic changes, though: Sardinia would still retain for a long time its Hispanic character, so much so that only in were the Aragonese and Spanish dynastic symbols replaced by the Savoyard cross.
Unlike the other infantry brigades of Italy, Sassari's conscripts were only Sardinians including many officers. It is currently the only unit in Italy with an anthem in a language other than Italian: Dimonios "Devils"written in by Luciano Sechi. Its title derives from Rote Teufel German for "red devils".
However, compulsory military service played a role in language shift. Under Fascismall languages other than Italian were banned, including Sardinia's improvised poetry competitions in Sardinian,      and a large number of Sardinian surnames were changed to sound more Italian e.
Lussu becoming Lusso, Pilu changing to Pilo and so on.
This period saw the most aggressive cultural assimilation effort by the central government,  which led to an even further sociolinguistic degradation of Sardinian.
No-smoking sign in Sardinian and Italian After World War IIawareness around the Sardinian language and the danger of its slipping away did not seem to concern the Sardinian elites and entered the political spaces much later than in other European peripheries marked by the long-standing presence of ethno-linguistic minorities;  on the contrary, the language was rejected by the already Italianized middle class.
In the meantime, the emphasis on Italian-only assimilation policies continued, with historical sites and ordinary objects renamed in Italian.
Such consensus remains relatively stable to this day; a further survey in reported that more than half of the interviewees, While the first section of said law states that Italian is the official language of the Republic, a number of provisions are included in order to normalize the use of such languages and let them become part of the national fabric.
Today, most people who use Sardinian as part of day-to-day life reside mainly in the sparsely populated areas in the countryside, like the mountainous region of Barbagia. After about one month, Google changed the place names back to Italian.
Inthe first automatic translation software from Italian to Sardinian was developed.Despite the fact that, as Shakespeare said, "the pen is mightier than the sword," the pen itself is not enough to make an effective writer. In fact, though we may all like to think of ourselves as the next Shakespeare, inspiration alone is not the key to effective essay writing.
In addition I believe that spoken language is different from written language because most written language is intended to be read by someone who is separated from the writer in space and time.
Therefore to communicate successfully, it has to be a lot more explicit than spoken language used in a face to face conversation. I, for one, want to be free to refer to "the brotherhood of man" without being corrected by the language police. I want to decide for myself whether I should be called a chairman, a chairwoman, or a chairperson (I am not a chair).
Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback. Written and Spoken English Language The English language consists both of written and spoken features.
Until recently, items and structures most typically found in spoken language have not been fully described. Features of Spoken Language In my informal conversation with the plumber, I have used an array of spoken language features such as acronyms, hedge words and even ellipsis forever on the other hand, whilst conversing with my father, I have employed covert prestige so that he understands me better.