Ancient Greece Ancient Greece was the birthplace of Western philosophical ethics. The ideas of Socrates c.
Colonial period[ edit ] Abolitionists gathered support for their claims from writings by European Enlightenment philosophers such as MontesquieuVoltaire who became convinced the death penalty was cruel and unnecessary  and Bentham. In addition to various philosophers, many members of QuakersMennonites and other peace churches opposed the death penalty as well.
Perhaps the most influential essay for the anti-death penalty movement was Cesare Beccaria 's essay, On Crimes and Punishment.
Beccaria's strongly opposed the state's right to take lives and criticized the death penalty as having very little deterrent effect. After the American Revolutioninfluential and well-known Americans, such as Thomas JeffersonBenjamin Rushand Benjamin Franklin made efforts to reform or abolish the death penalty in the United States.
All three joined the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisonswhich opposed capital punishment.
Following colonial times, the anti-death penalty movement has risen and fallen throughout history. In Against Capital Punishment: Haines describes the presence of the anti-death penalty movement as existing in four different eras.
Anti-death penalty sentiment rose as a result of the Jacksonian era, which condemned gallows and advocated for better treatment of orphans, criminals, poor people, and the mentally ill. In addition, this era also produced various enlightened individuals who were believed to possess the capacity to reform deviants.
Although some called for complete abolition of the death penalty, the elimination of public hangings was the main focus. Initially, abolitionists opposed public hangings because they threatened public order, caused sympathy for the condemned, and were bad for the community to watch.
However, after multiple states restricted executions to prisons or prison yards, the anti-death penalty movement could no longer capitalize on the horrible details of execution. The anti-death penalty gained some success by the end of the s as MichiganRhode Islandand Wisconsin passed abolition bills.
Abolitionists also had some success in prohibiting laws that placed mandatory death sentences of convicted murderers. However, some of these restrictions were overturned and the movement was declining. In addition, the anti-gallow groups who were responsible for lobbying for abolition legislation were weak.
The groups lacked strong leadership, because most members were involved in advocating for other issues as well, such as slavery abolishment and prison reform. Members of anti-gallow groups did not have enough time, energy, or resources to make any substantial steps towards abolition.
Thus, the movement declined and remained latent until after the post-Civil War period. Second abolitionist era, late 19th and early 20th centuries[ edit ] The anti-death penalty gained momentum again at the end of the 19th century.
Populist and progressive reforms contributed to the reawakened anti-capital punishment sentiment. In addition, a " socially conscious " form of Christianity and the growing support of "scientific" corrections contributed to the movement's success.
This method was supposed to be more humane and appease death penalty opponents.Timeline. Eighteenth Century B.C. -first established death penalty laws. Eleventh Century A.D.-William the Conqueror will not allow persons to be hanged except in cases of murder.
Captain George Kendall becomes the first recorded execution in the new colonies.. - Jane Champion becomes the first woman executed in the new colonies.. -Cesare Beccaria's essay, On Crimes and. Albert Camus (—) Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate.
Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and speeches—from terrorism and.
Ethics Of The Death Penalty Philosophy Essay. "death sentence", and "execution", the issue is not a newfangled idea, the moral meaning of the death penalty. Death penalty: is capital punishment morally Death penalty: is capital punishment morally justified?
The second question is moral.
Even if the death penalty. The death penalty, also known as capital punishment, is a legal process of punishment for crime.
The Church views capital punishment as wrong and not necessary. It . Recent Developments in Capital Punishment The Federal Death Penalty In addition to the death penalty laws in many states, the federal government has also employed capital punishment for certain federal offenses, such as murder of a government official, kidnapping resulting in death, running a large-scale drug enterprise, and treason.